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A research focus on hazards, risk perception and risk minimizing strategies is relatively new in the social and environmental sciences. This volume by a prominent scholar of East African societies is a powerful example of this growing interest. Earlier theory and research tended to describe social and economic systems in some form of equilibrium. However recent thinking in human ecology, evolutionary biology, not to mention in economic and political theory has come to assign to "risk" a prominent role in predictive modeling of behavior. It turns out that risk minimalization is central to the understanding of individual strategies and numerous social institutions. It is not simply a peripheral and transient moment in a group's history. Anthropologists interested in forager societies have emphasized risk management strategies as a major force shaping hunting and gathering routines and structuring institutions of food sharing and territorial behavior. This book builds on some of these developments but through the analysis of quite complex pastoral and farming peoples and in populations with substantial known histories. The method of analysis depends heavily on the controlled comparisons of different populations sharing some cultural characteristics but differing in exposure to certain risks or hazards.
The central questions guiding this approach are: 1) How are hazards generated through environmental variation and degradation, through increasing internal stratification, violent conflicts and marginalization? 2) How do these hazards result in damages to single households or to individual actors and how do these costs vary within one society? 3) How are hazards perceived by the people affected? 4) How do actors of different wealth, social status, age and gender try to minimize risks by delimiting the effect of damages during an on-going crisis and what kind of institutionalized measures do they design to insure themselves against hazards, preventing their occurrence or limiting their effects? 5) How is risk minimization affected by cultural innovation and how can the importance of the quest for enhanced security as a driving force of cultural evolution be estimated?
Few titles could be timelier than the second edition of Crisis Management in the Food and Drinks Industry - A Practical Approach. The world is worrying about a human pandemic arising from the avian flu epidemic that is spreading from the Far East, the implications of which could be as great for the food industry as were the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease and BSE.
This practical and greatly expanded edition by media and public relations veteran Colin Doeg focuses on the communications aspects of dealing with a crisis. It is global in its coverage of the subject, reviewing practices and requirements in countries ranging from the USA and the UK to Australia and New Zealand.
Doeg offers advice ranging from preparing for the unthinkable to the dramatic expansion of the Internet, avoiding being caught off-guard by a situation, the ramifications of product tampering and managing an actual crisis.
Advice is also offered on dealing with extremist organizations and terrorist threats as well as bioterrorism - "a clear and present danger" - and a number of problems facing the food industry, including the practice of selling meat unfit for human consumption and the threat posed by the increasing toxicity of fish due to the rising pollution of the world's oceans.
In a special late chapter - written only three months before publication - the author looks ahead to events which he believes will shape the world of crisis management in the future, including the empowering influence of the Internet during the 2004 Asian Tsunami, the discovery of the illegal dye Sudan 1 (Red) in millions of food products and the fears of a pandemic arising from the spreading outbreak of avian flu.
Examples of typical documents like a crisis plan for a business, a crisis checklist, a press release announcing a product recall, an announcement to employees and a checklist for anyone dealing with a threatening phone call are provided. Also included is a list of sources of information and assistance in the event of a product crisis.
Crisis Management in the Food and Drinks Industry is the only title dealing specifically with this crucial subject in relation to the food industry. As such, it is relevant not only to those in the food industry, but also to marketing and senior management in general in the fields of agriculture, public health and law enforcement.
There is little written about a comprehensive school/community approach to crisis prevention, intervention, and management. This book discusses steps helping professionals should take in order to prepare for a crisis in their schools and community. The author introduces a Crisis Management Plan, which discusses ways to restore a school/community to its pre-crisis equilibrium. The Crisis Management Plan includes steps to be taken to prevent panic and a referral network for students and their families in need of services. The author also includes information on how schools should talk to media personnel and parents in times of a crisis. She includes checklists, assessment instruments, and sample documentation forms that can be used in times of a crisis.
The political, social, cultural, and religious crises Jews encountered in their long history influenced the development of Jewish culture, thought, and religion. The authors describe how Jews coped with these threatening events, especially how they consequently had to rethink and shape their Jewish identity anew.
Yet another book on the topic of 'Sustainable Forest Management' can only be justified by new information that is of direct relevance. The contents of this volume concentrate on the very latest factors and developments, thus, hopefully, contributing both to the book's attractiveness and to closing gaps in the discipline's database. This book is written for researchers in the field of forest management, international forestry, and climate change-related issues, legal and policy advisors, as well as for managers of private companies who deal with SFM. The authors of the various sections are scientists in the field of forestry and other environmental sciences. They represent different institutions, mainly universities and research agencies in Germany, but also high-level international institutions in development co-operation, such as the World Bank, FAO, and IIASA. The scope of the book is to refresh the meanings and perceptions of SFM against the background of the rapid changes in our natural and social environment. Climate change and the rapid increase of atmospheric CO concentration is a global process 2 with negative impacts of different kinds, among others on natural ecosystems such as forests. A crucial issue therefore is how forest management can contribute to forest conservation in light of changing climatic conditions. Moreover, policy changes such as the introduction of certification schemes and the new emphasis laid on Non-Wood Forest Products justify the re-evaluation of the role of SFM in delivering ecological goods and services from our forests.